Apache Helicopter

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The striking McDonnell Douglas AH-64 Apache Gunship is an iconic attack helicopter known throughout the world for its menouverability and firepower.

The AH-64 Apache was originally designed in the early 1980s by Hughes Helicopters, who were later bought by McDonnell Douglas (in 1984) who evolved the design into the AH-64D, or Apache Longbow – this model is now built by Boeing IDS.

The Apache first saw combat in Panama in 1989, but has since served well in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Persian Gulf and of course Iraq. They in fact made the first offensive strike of ‘Desert Storm’ in 1991, Apaches were responsible for destoying over 500 Iraqi tanks in the 100 hour war.

The AH-64 is not confined to the United States, it operates as part of the Israeli Air Force, Royal Netherlands Air Force, and the British Army. Several countries such as South Korea and Japan are currently negotiating orders.

The Apache has been the star of several computer games such as ‘Apache Longbow’ on the PC, as well as a major Hollywood movie ‘Wings of the Apache’.

 AH-64A specs

Max Speed : 182mph
Cruising speed : 165mph
Rate of Climb : 12.7 m/s

Guns : M230 Cannon (1200 rounds)
Missiles : AGM114 Hellfires / AIM92 Stingers / AIM9 Sidewinders
Rockets : Hydra70s

Cost (each) : $21 million

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Formula One in the 1960s

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Cooper and Jack Brabham begin the 60’s with second, successive victories in both the driver’s and constructors championships. BRM and Lotus change to mid-engined cars and Stirling Moss gives Lotus it’s first F1 race win at Monaco, and a second at Riverside in the USA.
The points system is revised to give points for the top six finishers (8,6,4,3,2,1) and the extra point award for the fastest race lap is dropped. This would also be the final year of 2.5 litre engined cars, before moving to 1.5 litres in 1961.

Ferrari were well prepared for 1961, and their cars were far superior to the opposition. The underpowered Lotus did manage two wins against the Maranello cars but this was only possible due to the outstanding driver skill of Stirling Moss.
At the Italian grand prix in Monza, the Ferrari of Wolfgang Von Trips collided with Jim Clark’s Lotus. The Ferrari was sent into the crowd killing 14 spectators as well as Von Trips himself.
Phill Hill becomes the first Amercian Formula One World Champion, and as expected from early on in the season, Ferrari take the constructors title. 
Due to increasing concerns over safety, roll bars were made compulsory. The points awarded to the race winner are also increased from 8 to 9.

British teams overturn Ferrari’s dominance when they begin utilising multi-cylinder V8 engines. Lotus introduce a revolutionary monocoque design for the Lotus 25 which takes Jim Clark to the first grand prix win of his career. Graham Hill takes the championship at the wheel of the BRM.
Jack Brabham raced in his own car this season, taking points both as a driver and a constructor.
Stirling Moss crashed heavily at Goodwood (taking part in the Glover Trophy) , the accident resulted in a coma and partial paralysis of his left side. Stirling took part in a private test the following year but ultimately never raced again.
Also this season, Ricardo Rodriguez became the youngest driver to score championship points at the age of 20 years and 123 days. He held this record until the year 2000 when Jenson Button scored points at the Brazilian GP. Jenson was 20 years and 67 days old.

Jim clark secured his first Formula One World Championship, dominating the season. He won seven of the ten championship races that year, the other winners being John Surtees (Germany for Ferrari), and Graham Hill (Monte Carlo and USA for BRM). Lotus-Climax won the constructors championship for the first time.
Ex-Ferrari workers set up the ATS team as a direct rival to Ferrari, which became a failure and ruined the career of Phil Hill.

This was the year John Surtees became the only man to ever win the Formula One World Championship having also been a motorcycle world champion. He managed this feat only after a dramatic 3-way battle with Jim Clark and Graham Hill at the final GP of the season in Mexico.
Honda made their first appearance in Formula One this year, and Brabham take their first race win with the help of Dan Gurney.

Jim Clark Ruled 1965. As well as becoming Formula One World Champion for the second time, he also lifted the winners trophy at the Indianapolis 500, The British and French Formula Two Championships and ,over in Australia and New Zealand, the Tasman Championship.
Jackie Stewart’s debut season saw him finish 3rd overall, and Honda win their first ever F1 race.
Climax withdrew from racing at the end of the season, bringing an end to the 1.5 litre formula. In 1966, maximum engine capacity would be doubled ..

The 3 litre formula introduced in the wake of Climax’s exit from Formula One saw some teams struggle to adapt. BRM and the Lotus team used re-bored engines from the previous season ( up from 1.5 to 2 litres) due to problems sourcing a 3 litre unit. Jack Brabham however, partnered with Australian outfit Repco to fit his own car with a brand new engine to take his 3rd championship title.
The McLaren team was born when Bruce McLaren raced his own car, and Dan Gurney took the same route by starting the Eagle team.
New rules were introduced which meant any driver not completing at least 90% race distance would no longer be classified or receive any points.

The 3rd race of the season (The Dutch GP at Zandvoort) saw the introduction via Lotus of the now legendary Ford Cosworth DFV engine. This magnificent piece of engineering would go on to win not only 155 Grand Prix, but also at Le Mans and Indianapolis. Lotus were to lose out to the Brabham team in 1967 however due to the greater consistency of Denny Hulme (who took the drivers title).
Lorenzo Bandini who was number one at Ferrari, died of burns sustained after a crash during the second race of the year (Monaco) casting a shadow over the team for the rest of the season. Ferrari continued to compete but ended the year 5th overall in the constructors table.

Jim Clark was tragically killed early on in the season during a Formula Two race at Hockenheim. Despite this Lotus remained strong with the help of the Cosworth DFV introduced in 1967 and won both the drivers (Graham Hill) and constructors title.
McLaren an new team Matra (instigated by Ken Tyrell) also introduce DFV powered cars but remained technologically a few steps behind Lotus all season.
There were other major changes to F1 this year. BP, Shell and Firestone withdrew financial support from the sport and in response the FIA lifted all advertising restrictions. This resulted in the first tobacco sponsorship (Imperial Tobacco for Lotus).
Serious ventures into aerodynamics also took place, with the Lotus, Brabham, Matra and Ferrari all experimenting with new front and rear wings.

Formula One World Champions in the 1960s

1960 : Jack Brabham
1961 : Phill Hill
1962 : Graham Hill
1963 : Jim Clark
1964 : John Surtees
1965 : Jim Clark
1966 : Jack Brabham
1967 : Denny Hulme
1968 : Graham Hill
1969 : Jackie Stewart

Formula One World Championship – Constructors in the 1960s

1960 : Cooper – Climax
1961 : Ferrari
1962 : BRM
1963 : Lotus – Climax
1964 : Ferrari
1965 : Lotus – Climax
1966 : Brabham – Repco
1967 : Brabham – Repco
1968 : Lotus- Ford
1969 : Matra – Ford


Formula One in the 1950s

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The first season to incorporate Formula One World Championship races was dominated by Alfa Romeo. Six of this seasons races counted towards the championship and Alfa’s T158 won all six of them in the hands of Juan-Manuel Fangio and team mate Guiseppe Farina (who took the trophy).
Points were awarded to the first five placed drivers of each race (8,6,4,3,2) and an extra point was given to the driver setting the fastest lap. The best four race results from each driver were used to decide the championship.

Alfa Romeo continued on top this year, with Juan-Manuel Fangio taking the title in the T159. Ferrari’s T375 was a close challenger for the championship, driven by Jose Froilan Gonzalez and Alberto Ascari it won three races.
Alfa actually withdrew from Formula One at the end of 1951 as the Italian government were unwilling to fund a replacement for the T159.

This year saw the FIA decision to run Formula Two cars in the Championship races, this was intended to create closer racing as the cars were much more evenly matched. However, the end result was uninspiring, the normally aspirated 2 litre engines of the formula two cars unable to match the spectacle of previous supercharged machines.
Ferrari were dominant throughout the season, between team mates Alberto Ascari and Piero Taruffi they won every championship race. Ascari came out on top to win the trophy.
Also in 1952, Juan-Manuel Fangio narrowly escaped death, but was left with a broken neck after a serious accident.

Continuing from 1952, the championship races were run under formula two rules, and Ferrari also continued to dominate. They were to win all but the final race in Monza, where Maserati took the win with Fangio at the wheel having recovered from his serious crash the previous year.
Alberto Ascari once again headed the drivers table.

Mercedes Benz made a return to Grand Prix racing for 1954, and new teams Lancia and Vanwall were to join later in the season. The formula was revised and the cars, although still normally aspirated, were now 2.5 litres. The Mercedes was the superior car but saw challenges from Ferrari who won two races. The Mercedes did win the championship, with Juan-Manuel Fangio at the wheel.
The German Grand Prix was marred by the death of Onofre Marimon. The Argentine was presumed to have a successful career ahead of him in F1 but was killed in practice at the circuit.

This season was made memorable for all the wrong reasons.
During the 24 hour race in Le Mans, the Mercedes of Pierre Levegh flew off the track and killed over 80 spectators. Because of this, The German, Spanish, French and Swiss Grand Prix were cancelled. Switzerland went as far as actually banning all racing, and Mercedes withdrew from all racing at the end of the season.
Alberto Ascari was killed in a sports car test at Monza, resulting in Lancia’s withdrawal from the championship. Ferrari raced their cars for the rest of the season.

Aside from a single race (Monaco, where Ferrari took the win) , Mercedes once again dominated the championship and won every race this year. This was due in no small part to the partnering of Juan-Manuel Fangio and a debuting Sterling Moss.

Juan-Manuel Fangio secured his place in the history books by taking his fourth world championship title in 1956. Sterling Moss would have won if not for fellow Englishman (but team mate to Fangio) Peter Collins, who handed over his car to Fangio during the Italian GP.
Several teams experimented with technology this year. Vanwall introduced aerodynamics as well as fuel injection, and Bugatti entered the fray with a rear-engined car which was a radical new development. Both team suffered unreliability and the rear engine was shelved.
The Gordini team, who had been languishing behind the rest of the field retired from racing at the end of the season.

The era of the mid-engined Formula One car began when Cooper unveiled their T43 at Monaco this year.
Although now 47 years old, Juan-Manuel Fangio won his fifth world championship title (this was to be his last). He took the honours behind the wheel of a Maserati after having left the Ferrari team. The British grand prix was held at Aintree and was won by a Vanwall shared by Tony Brooks and Stirling Moss.
Another victim of the dangers of F1 was Eugenio Castelotti who was killed whilst testing at Modena.
Maserati withdrew from Formula One at the end of the season, but their cars would race on without manufacturer support.

The end of an era in many ways ; Fangio retired mid season, several significant changes were made to the regulations, Ferrari’s Luigi Musso was killed at the Nurburgring, and Peter Collins was killed at Reims in France (also of Ferrari). Vanwall’s Stuart Lewis-Evans also died after the season ended of injuries sustained at the grand prix in Morocco.
Mike Hawthorn became the first British World Champion, although he only won one race this season. Vanwall became the winners of the very first Constructors Championship which was introduced this year.

Regulation changes ;

  • Shared drives banned
  • Manufacturers Championship introduced
  • Minimum race distance reduced from 500km to 300km, and duration from 3 to 2 hours
  • Alcohol based fuel replaced with Avgas

The season started under the shadow of the death of reigning world champion Mike Hawthorn. He was killed on January 22nd in a road accident.
The health issues of Vanwall’s owner Tony Vandervell saw the team retire from racing this year. Other British teams Cooper and BRM did well, BRM won their first GP and Jack Brabham won his first world championship with Cooper, who also won the constructors championship.
Formula One added The United States to their calendar, with a race at Sebring. Aston Martin also joined the grid this year although their car was not competitive.

Formula One World Champions in the 1950s

1950 : Giuseppe Farina
1951 : Juan-Manuel Fangio
1952 : Alberto Ascari
1953 : Alberto Ascari
1954 : Juan-Manuel Fangio
1955 : Juan-Manuel Fangio
1956 : Juan-Manuel Fangio
1957 : Juan-Manuel Fangio
1958 : Mike Hawthorn
1959 : Jack Brabham

Formula One World Championship – Constructors in the 1950s

1958 : Vanwall
1959 : Cooper